49) later they were known as Colham or Lower Colham mill and Yiewsley mill respectively. 91) At its peak, about 1890, Broad's brick-field was working 18 to 20 stools and gave seasonal employment to between 400 and 500 men. 92) At this period gravel associated with the brickearth deposits was also being extracted west of Starveall Lane and in the extreme south-east of the parish. 93) The Hillingdon brickearth was becoming worked out at the beginning of the 20th century and the Stockley brickworks began to decline.
The Kingston Lane premises of Joseph Lowe (later Lowe & Shawyer Ltd.), founded in 1864, were expanded during the 1890s and in the early 20th century the firm was said to be the largest cut flower nursery in the country, specializing in the growing of chrysanthemums for the London market. 38) A nursery at Pield Heath was established in 1895 by Milton Hutchings, a friend of Joseph Lowe. 39) By 1913 there were six nurseries, covering approximately 65 a., in the area bounded by Cowley Road, Hillingdon Road, and Royal Lane, and four smaller nurseries covering almost 20 a. Despite the rapid in-filling of the parish after 1900 and the encroachment of building estates on agricultural land, market-gardening and farming on a small scale continued. 41) Hercies Farm, north of Sweetcroft Lane, and Hillingdon House Farm to the west were not sold to the local authority until 1922 (fn. Hence it is seldom possible to say with certainty that a medieval mill remained in continuous use until the 19th century or later. During the medieval period the two mills belonging to Colham were called Port mill and Bury mill: (fn.
In 1954 the buildings were bought from the millers E. The Kenilworth and Metal Powder companies then moved to an adjoining site in Trout Road. Ltd.) which was established in Bentinck Road in 1942 and later moved to a 6-acre site in Horton Road. moved into premises in High Street, Yiewsley, in 1952.
In 1965 the Middlesex Oil and Chemical Works employed approximately 100 persons. 108) A large number of smaller industries, chiefly engaged in manufacturing chemicals, plastics, and engineering components, were established at Yiewsley, and particularly in Trout Road, after 1930. In 1965 the company, which manufactured fibreboard corrugated containers, employed approximately 150 people. The firm then manufactured chiefly coaches and fire engines and employed approximately 350 people.
By 1960 there were more than forty such concerns in the area. By 1965, however, the demand for luxury coaches had declined and the firm employed only about 50 people in manufacturing glass fibre components for commercial vehicles. 111) Further north, at Cowley, the Cowley Bridge works of Cape Building Products Ltd. Initially the factory produced flint bricks only, but in 1949 the company also began to manufacture asbestos insulation boards.
Pages 75-82A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 4, Harmondsworth, Hayes, Norwood With Southall, Hillingdon With Uxbridge, Ickenham, Northolt, Perivale, Ruislip, Edgware, Harrow With Pinner. Between 18 the population of rural Hillingdon increased by 469 to 2,252, and for the first time the number of families gaining a living by trade exceeded those employed in agriculture. 32) Further north horticultural specialization for the metropolitan market followed the establishment in 1838 of a railway link with London. 33) By 1853 the Victoria and Hillingdon Nurseries had been established at Uxbridge by Thomas Appleby, and Robert Pain, who advertised as successor to James Griffin, owned the Uxbridge Nursery at Hillingdon End. 34) In 1876 there were said to be 'numerous' orchards in the parish, (fn. 36) By 1894 the glass and orchards of the Uxbridge Nursery covered almost 40 a. 51) and in 1327 three water-mills called Crouch mill, Wode mill, and Town mill were included in an extent of Cowley Hall manor. 52) There was a windmill belonging to Colham manor in 1328 (fn. In 1649 Crouch mill and the adjoining millhouse were leased to Samuel Bonsey, a London mealman. The Victoria oil mills on the canal at Yiewsley were in existence before 1855.
Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1971. 1690 the augmented demesne of Colham, all of which was apparently leased, totalled 536 a. 17) The manor was then said to be worth £931, including leasehold rents in Hillingdon worth £794, profits of court worth £20, and £68 from rents, tolls, and profits in Uxbridge. 18) By the 19th century the demesne had again been reduced to a little more than 300 a. 19) Whether changes in land utilization following the inclosure of parcels of common and open-field land from the 16th century onwards (fn. In 1821, when the population of the remainder of the parish exceeded that of Uxbridge, 243 families were said to be employed in agriculture. 35) and four years later there were nurseries in the Greenway, Kingston Lane, Harefield Road, Denham Road, and south of St. 53) and at least from the late 14th century the lord of Colham owned, in addition to his two mills south of Uxbridge, two watermills under one roof in the town. 54) A mill called Mede mill, also belonging to the lord of Colham, is first mentioned by name in 1409 when it was apparently horsepowered. 55) A wharf for Mede mill was being constructed in 1419 and thereafter it is described as a water-mill. 56) In the 1530s there were two mills, one driven by the Frays and the other by the Colne, near the Oxford road at the west end of Uxbridge. 57) In the 17th century a water-mill at Uxbridge belonged to Stanwell manor, (fn. Rabbs or Robbs mill (later Cowley mill), sited on the Frays stream at the junction of Cowley Road and the modern Cowley Mill Road, is first mentioned by name in 1636 (fn. of the rectorial glebe south of Colham Green leased to Samuel Pocock, were being worked for brickearth. By 1886 the works were occupied by Graham Walter & Co., a firm of oil cake manufacturers, who continued production there until about 1900. 96) The Hillingdon Varnish Works on the canal east of Yiewsley had been established by 1868, (fn. 98) when the chief industries of the Yiewsley area were described as brick-making, milling, tanning, rubber, varnish, and chemical works. 99) The Para rubber mill (established before 1898) (fn.